Mechanisms of Injury
Signs and Symptoms
Imaging and Other Diagnostic Studies
Pathoanatomy and Applied Antatomy
Surgical and Applied Anatomy
Management of Expected Adverse Outcomes and Unexpected Complications
Authors’ Preferred Method of Treatment
Controversies and Future Directions
IR, internal rotation of the hip; ER, external rotation of the hip.
From Stannard JP, Harris HW, Volgas DA, et al. Functional outcome of patients with femoral head fractures associated with hip dislocations. Clin Orthop Rel Res. 2000;377:44–56.
AVN, avascular necrosis; G/E, good and excellent results; OA, osteoarthritis.