Epidemiology of Polytrauma
Incidence and Mortality
Effects of Legislation
Motor-vehicle Design/Passive Car Safety and Prevention
Economic Impact on Society
Trauma Care Systems
Reimbursement and Development of Costs
Pathophysiology and Immune Response to Trauma
Local and Systemic Inflammatory Response
Genetics and Trauma
Anatomical-based Scales and Scoring Systems
Initial Evaluation and Management
Principles of ATLS
Respiratory Function Assessment
Assessment of Volume Status
Assessment of Neurologic Status
Staging of the Patient’s Physiologic Status
Staging of the Patient’s Management Periods
Conventional Radiography—Plain X-Ray
Computed Tomography (CT Scan)
Priorities for Lifesaving Surgeries
Timing of Definitive Stabilization of Major Fractures: Indication for Early Definitive Fixation
Standard of Care for the Treatment of Skeletal Injuries
Intensive Care Unit
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
Patients with Head Trauma
Late Outcome after Polytrauma
Upper Extremity Injuries
Lower Extremity Fractures
d = days
Schreiber V, Tarkin IS, Hildebrand F, et al. The timing of definitive fixation for major fractures in polytrauma—a matched pair comparison between a US and European level I centers: analysis of current fracture management practice in polytrauma. Injury. 2011;42(7):650–654.
GCS, Glasgow coma scale; RR, respiratory rates; SBP, systolic blood pressure.
Described by Hildebrand F, van Griensven M, Garapati R, et al. Diagnostics and scoring in blunt chest trauma. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2002;28(3):157–167.
Oestern HJ, Tscherne H. Pathophysiology and Classification of Soft Tissue Injuries Associated with Fractures. Berlin: Spinger-Verlag; 1984.
Pfeifer R, Zelle B, Kobbe P, et al. Impact of isolated acetablar and lower extremity fractures on long-term outcome. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;72(2):467–472.