Mechanisms of Injury
Signs and Symptoms
Imaging and Other Diagnostic Studies
Pathoanatomy and Applied Anatomy
Common Surgical Approaches
Management of Open Fractures
Management of Expected Adverse Outcomes and Unexpected Complications
Muscle or Tendon Entrapment/Tendon Rupture
Complex Regional Pain Syndromes
Author's Preferred Treatment
Closed Fracture Care
Summary, Controversies, and Future Directions
Fracture Risk/Fracture Prevention
Parental Presence During Fracture Reduction
Numerator is pronation whereas denominator is supination.
The effect of rotational malunion of the radius and ulna on supination and pronation.
J Bone Joint Surg Br.
84:1070–1074; with permission.
AIN, anterior interosseous innervation; PIN, posterior interosseous nerve.
AIN, anterior interosseous innervation; PIN, posterior interosseous nerve. Occasionally, the accessory head flexor pollicis longus (aka Gantzer muscle; from coronoid region in 15% of specimens) is innervated by AIN.