The Risk Factors for Child Abuse
The Home at Risk
The Child at Risk
The Risk for Child Abuse that Occurs in a Medical Setting
The Risk for Sexual Abuse
Obtaining the History
The Orthopedic Interview
Soft Tissue Injuries
Abusive Head Trauma
Fractures in Child Abuse
The Skeletal Survey
Classic Metaphyseal Lesion of Child Abuse
The Differential Diagnosis
Temporary Brittle Bone Disease
Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy
Postemergency Room Treatment and Legal Reporting Requirements
The Orthopedic Surgeon's Legal Role in Nonaccidental Injury
Disposition Following Custody Hearings
Prevention of Child Abuse
The ALSPAC Study Team: Child maltreatment in the “Children of the Nineties”—a longitudinal study of parental risk factors.
Child Abuse Negl.
25:1177–1200, with permission.
Akbarnia BA. The role of the orthopaedic surgeon in child abuse. In:
Morrissy RP, ed.
Lowell and Winter's Pediatric Orthopaedic. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott; 1990;
Child abuse and neglect: A priority problem for the private physician.
Pediatr Clin North Am.
22(2):329–339, with permission.
Sibert J, et al.
Are there patterns of bruising in childhood which are diagnostic or suggestive of abuse? A systematic review.
Arch Dis Child.
Laskey AL, et al.
Mechanisms, clinical presentations, injuries, and outcomes from inflicted versus noninflicted head trauma during infancy: Results of a prospective, multicentered, comparative study.
American Academy of Pediatrics.
Section on Radiology. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse.
Physical abuse of children.
Fall or shaken: Traumatic brain injury in children caused by falls or abuse at home—a review on biomechanics and diagnosis.
Vogeley E, et al.
Evaluating long bone fractures in children: A biomechanical approach with illustrative cases.
Child Abuse Negl.
Cohen J. Dating fractures. In:
Kleinman PK, ed.
Diagnostic Imaging of Child Abuse. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1987:168–177, with permission.
Two references invaluable for preparation for testimony in the courtroom about child abuse:
A handy reference for courtroom testimony involving dating fractures:
The bible of child abuse radiology:
A current, concise review of the orthopedic detection of child abuse:
Illustrates the need to keep open mind regarding other diagnoses and the mimics of child abuse:
Recent summary of role for orthopedic surgeon in child maltreatment: