Role of the Pediatric Trauma Center
Initial Resuscitation and Evaluation
Evaluation and Assessment
Trauma Rating Systems
Nonorthopedic Conditions in the Multiply Injured Child
Peripheral Nerve Injuries
Fat Embolism and Pulmonary Embolism
Orthopedic Management of the Multiply Injured Child
Author's Preferred Method
Stabilization of Fractures
Outcomes of Treatment of the Multiply Injured Child
Committee on Medical Aspects of Automotive Safety.
Rating the severity of tissue damage. I. The abbreviated scale.
Haddon W Jr, et al.
The Injury Severity Score: A method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care.
This scoring system includes six common determinants of the clinical condition in the injured child. Each of the six determinants is assigned a grade: +2, minimal or no injury; +1, minor or potentially major injury; −1, major, or immediate life-threatening injury. The scoring system is arranged in a manner standard with advanced trauma life support protocol, and thereby provides a quick assessment scheme. The ranges are from −6 for a severely traumatized child to +12 for a least traumatized child. This system has been confirmed in its reliability as a predictor of injury severity.
Tepas JJ 3rd,
Talbert JL, et al.
The Pediatric Trauma Score as a predictor of injury severity in the injured child.
J Pediatr Surg.
22(1):14–18, with permission.
This scale is used to measure the level of consciousness using the eye opening, best verbal, and best motor responses. The range of scores is from 3 for the most severe to 15 for the least severe. This is a measure of level and progression of changes in consciousness.
Galbraith S, et al.
Severe head injuries in three countries.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
40(3):291–298, with permission.
Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: A new classification of type III open fractures.
Prevention of infection in the treatment of 1025 open fractures of long bones: Retrospective and prospective analyses.
J Bone Joint Surg Am.